Cardiac surgery is done to improve or cure life-threatening cardiac diseases. While advancements in preventive medicine have significantly reduced the incidence of heart conditions, there are instances where cardiac surgery becomes a crucial and lifesaving intervention. Cardiac surgery is quite a complex procedure; therefore, it is performed by renowned and well-trained cardiac surgeons to get a high success rate.
In this blog, we'll explore when cardiac surgery is necessary and the conditions that may warrant such a procedure.
What are the Conditions Require for Cardiac Surgery?
According to the statistics, approximately 9,00,000 cardiac procedures were performed worldwide in 2022.
Due to bad lifestyles and food habits, certain heart conditions arise, which require surgical intervention. The most common heart condition is the narrowing of arteries, which is commonly known as a condition of coronary artery disease. About more than 18 million people are affected by coronary artery diseases worldwide.
Likewise, there are many conditions that require cardiac surgery interventions. Some of them are:
- Heart Failure: Severe cases of end-stage heart failure may require advanced treatments, including heart transplantation or implantation of mechanical devices like ventricular assist devices (VADs). Cardiac surgery plays a crucial role in addressing the underlying issues contributing to heart failure.
- Heart Valve Diseases: Heart valve disorders, such as stenosis or regurgitation, can significantly impact cardiac function. When the valves fail to open or close properly, it can lead to problems like shortness of breath, fatigue, and chest pain. It could take surgery to replace or repair a valve in order to improve overall heart function and return blood flow to normal.
- Aneurysms: Aneurysms can develop in multiple regions of the cardiovascular system, causing weakening and bulging in the blood arteries. If an aneurysm forms in the aorta, the main artery carrying blood from the heart, surgical repair may be required to prevent rupture, a potentially fatal event.
- Congenital Heart Disease: CHD are structural abnormalities present at birth. While some defects may be mild and not require surgical intervention, others can be life-threatening and necessitate immediate or staged cardiac surgeries. Corrective procedures aim to repair or reconstruct the heart's structures, ensuring proper function and circulation.
- Coronary Artery Diseases: One of the primary reasons for cardiac surgery is coronary artery disease (CAD). Angina or heart attacks can result from narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries. This can happen as a result of plaque accumulation. Coronary artery bypass grafting may be advised in extreme circumstances in order to bypass the clogged arteries and restore normal cardiac blood flow.
What are the Types of Cardiac Surgery Performed?
The cardiac surgery can be done with many types depending upon the severity and types of heart conditions. It is essential to choose the top cardiac surgeon to increase the chances of cardiac surgery success rate.
The types of cardiac surgery that can be performed are:
- Open Heart Surgery: Open heart surgery involves cutting and making a 6-to 8-inch long incision in the middle of your chest and spreading your ribcage to reach your heart. Coronary artery bypass surgery can be done through this type of technique. After this procedure, the recovery time is comparatively longer than other procedures. This technique is done for heart valve replacement and repair, implant any devices or heart transplantation.
- Off-Pump Bypass Surgery: Off-pump bypass surgery is done when the heart is beating. Off-pump CABG is performed without the use of a heart-beating machine. This procedure is generally performed when two or three arteries need to be bypassed.
- Minimally Invasive Surgery: This technique is known as a "keyhole procedure." In this procedure, a 3 to 4 inch incision is made through a portion of your sternum (breastbone) during a partial sternotomy. A mini-thoracotomy makes tiny incisions in between your ribs rather than in your breastbone. This minimally invasive procedure can also be done by robotic arms to get more precision and a successful surgery rate.
Cardiac surgery is a specialized field that offers hope and healing for individuals with severe cardiovascular conditions. The decision to undergo cardiac surgery is often based on a careful assessment of the overall health of the patient, severity of the condition, and the potential benefits of surgical intervention.