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What are the Subspecialties of Gynecology and Obstetrics?

Gynecology and Obstetrics is a medical field that focuses on the care of women. Gynecology is a medicinal area that believes in the health of the female reproductive system, such as the vagina, uterus, ovaries, and breasts. In contrast, Obstetrics concentrates on pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.

Both specializations play a vital role in a woman's life when going through any complications related to reproductive health, pregnancy, and childbirth.

A physician qualified in gynecology is known as a gynecologist. Similarly, a physician trained in obstetrics is known as an obstetrician. These subspecialties allow obstetricians and gynecologists to focus on specific aspects of reproductive health, pregnancy, and gyne conditions such as menstrual disorders, pelvic pain, and sexually transmitted diseases.

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How Many Subspecialties Exist Within Gynecology and Obstetrics?

The obstetrics and gynecology department consists of various subspecialties that provide women with the best and highest healthcare quality. Below are the 6 main subspecialties of obstetrics and gynecology:

  1. Maternal-Fetal Medicine (MFM) 

Maternal Fetal Medicine is also known as perinatology. It is a branch of medicine that focuses on the health of women who have problems before, during, or after pregnancy. The experts in this field specialize in obstetrics, and they undergo special training that ensures the best outcome for both the baby and the mother. They might work with a pediatrician and a neonatologist after birth. For a mother, perinatologists are very crucial as they handle pre-existing health concerns or complications that can arise during pregnancy.

  1. Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility 

Reproductive endocrinologists focus on the diagnosis and management of hormonal disorders affecting fertility and reproductive health. They offer advanced fertility treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), and ovulation induction, to help couples conceive. These specialists also provide care for women with conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), endometriosis, and premature ovarian insufficiency.

  1. Gynecologic Oncology

Gynecologic oncologists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of gynecological cancers like ovarian, cervical, uterine, vaginal and vulvar cancers. They are trained in performing complex surgical procedures such as radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Common diagnostic approaches of gynecologic oncology include biopsy, imaging studies, and blood tests.

  1. Urogynecology 

It is a branch of gynecology and obstetrics which deals with the female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery. The conditions treated by urogynecologists are bladder pain, urethral pain, vaginal or uterine prolapse, obstructed defecation, and anal incontinence.

  1. Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery

This type of gynecological surgery involves smaller incisions and shorter recovery times. This surgery is mainly opted for patients with conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, fibroids, and others. In certain cases, a minimally invasive procedure can be opted to avoid the necessity of a hysterectomy.

  1. Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology

This subspecialty deals with the reproductive and gynecological health of infants, children, and adolescents. This includes dealing with congenital disabilities, menstrual disorders, reproductive endocrine disorders, and genital tract abnormalities.


There are many subspecialties within Gynecology and Obstetrics that play a crucial role in the comprehensive care of women's reproductive health. These subspecialties can deal with anything from managing high-risk pregnancies, infertility, gynecological cancer, pelvic floor disorders, and more. But, make sure to gather as much information as can before finalizing anything.

ayushman Author Name

Ayushman Bhatt is a graduate of life sciences with a specialization in creating informative and easy-to-understand content that simplifies the complexities of the medical world.

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Dr. Bhawana Mittal

Dr. Bhawana Mittal has 7+ years of experience in managing patients and their medical queries. With a keen eye for detail and a deep-rooted passion for healthcare and wellness, she is dedicated to ensuring the accuracy and credibility of medical content. Her expertise spans across diverse medical domains, enabling her to review and refine the content on almost all diseases and conditions. 

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