Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) Closure is a surgical procedure to close a hole in the upper part of the heart that remains open during childbirth. It is a congenital heart defect called Atrial Septal Defect.
What is Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)?
An abnormal opening in the muscular wall between the heart's two upper chambers is known as ASD. This opening allows the blood to flow to the lungs during fetal development. Typically, the opening closes at the time of birth. Still, if not, it leads to Congenital Heart Defect called Atrial Septal Defect (ASD).
With modern-day technology in surgical sciences, these holes are easily treatable.
Did you know that ASDs account for approximately 10 to 15 percent of congenital heart disease, with a reported birth prevalence of roughly 1 to 2 per 1000 live births?
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What are the Types of ASD Closure Procedures?
Depending on the hole's size and the chances of a better prognosis, two types of procedures are available to treat ASD.
Surgical - (Open-Heart Surgery)
In this procedure, a surgeon stitches a tissue patch around the heart's hole.
Non-Surgical - (Catheter-Based Repair)
During this procedure, a device placed using a thin, flexible (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel through a small incision in the groin.
Once it reaches the hole, the device is opened and held against it until it is completely closed.
What Are The Types of ASD Closure Devices?
With advancement, there are a few options available, including
Amplatzer™ Septal Occluder.
Amplatzer™ PFO Occluder.
Gore® Cardioform Septal Occluder.
Gore® Cardioform ASD Occluder (for larger ASDs).
STARFlex® Septal Closure System.
The ASD closure device consists of a nitinol (nickel and titanium) wire system with a polyester coating. Some devices may also include platinum.
A heart valve device usually consists of two circular discs with a narrow "waist" between them. Discs are positioned on either side of the opening in your heart wall. The waist sits in the hole.
Advantages of an ASD closure device placement
The success rate for placing ASD closure devices exceeds 93% in various studies.
Researchers have found that ASD transcatheter closure devices are as effective and safe as the devices surgeons use during open-heart surgery. However, if you receive an ASD closure device during cardiac catheterization, you can expect discomfort and a shorter hospital stay.
Who performs ASD Closure Surgery?
A Cardiac Surgeon or an Interventional Cardiologist, both specialists in heart procedures, performs ASD closure.
What happens after ASD Closure Surgery?
After the ASD closes, your medical team monitors you as you recover from the stroke. They also take pictures (x-rays) of your heart to ensure the procedure went well.
What's the Life Expectancy after ASD Closure?
Research shows that a young person (25 or younger) with ASD Closure Surgery has about the same life expectancy as others in the same age group who have never had ASD.
But older people who get ASD closure have a shorter life expectancy than their peers without ASD closure.
It is important to note that people with ASD who close the gap live longer than people with ASD who do not have the procedure.
What is the Recovery Time after ASD Closure?
Depending on your type of surgery, your healthcare provider will discuss what to expect during recovery.
After Catheter-based repair, you'll need an overnight stay. After that, you should rest for two weeks and should be able to resume day-to-day activities within a week.
Recovery from ASD Closure (Open-Heart Surgery) takes longer, so you may need to limit physical activity for a few weeks.
Post ASD Closure Care
Blood Thinners - You may need to take medications to prevent blood clots for six months after the procedure.
Antibiotics - Antibiotics help in avoiding a heart infection called bacterial endocarditis. It is advisable to take antibiotics before dental or other techniques for up to 6 months after your ASD surgery.
It may take around 6 to 8 weeks after the surgery before you feel completely better. Seek help from friends or family to help you with your daily activities. Slowly start increasing each day, but do not overdo it.
Follow-ups after ASD Closure Treatment
After ASD Closure Procedure, you must attend all follow-up appointments with your cardiologist or surgeon. The doctor will do some tests to make sure the procedure is effective. Tests may include:
Exercise stress tests.
ASD can be a small or large hole. Minor defects (less than 5 millimeters) are less likely to cause problems. More minor defects are often diagnosed much later in life than larger ones.
Currently, no medication can cure Atrial Septal Defect (ASD), so depending on the condition, you may need an ASD Closure Surgery.
Early detection and effective treatment from top hospitals are vital to improving the prognosis for those affected by ASD.