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Male Infertility Treatment in India

What is male infertility?

Male infertility means that a male cannot make a fertile female conceive even after having frequent ,unprotected intercourse for a year or longer. Male infertility is mostly caused due to low sperm production, abnormal sperm function or blockages that will prevent the delivery of sperm.

 

Overview of male reproductive system


Overview of Male Reproductive OrganMale reproductive system includes

  • Penis

  • Scrotum

  • Testes

  • Sex glands

  • Ducts

PENIS

Is a cylindrical shape male organ which is used in sexual intercourse. Inside this are spaces that are filled with blood .When a man is aroused the penis then becomes erect and flow of urine is blocked so that the semen can be ejaculated.

SCROTUM

This is a loose skinned pouch located behind and below the penis, containing the testicles or testes .it is located outside the body because sperms require lower body temperature. This pouch has special muscles to contract and relax and adjust the temperatures.

TESTES

Are the oval shaped organs, present in the scrotum .They are two in number, and produce testosterone ,the male sex hormone . The testes have coiled masses known as the seminiferous tubules ,which are responsible for sperm production.

 

Male Infertility Risk Factors


Risk factors for male infertility include:                                                                        Risk Factor for Male fertility

  • Smoking

  • Alcohol

  • Obesity

  • Illicit drugs

  • Trauma to testes

  • Overheating of testes

  • Trauma to testes

  • Having a tumor or chronic illness

  • Prior vasectomy or abdominal or pelvic surgery

  • Any radiation for cancer

  • Being born with a fertility disorder or having a blood relative with a fertility disorder

  • Having certain medical conditions, including tumors and chronic illnesses, such as sickle cell disease

    Infertility

  • Taking certain medications or undergoing medical treatments, such as surgery or radiation used for treating cancer


 

Causes of Male Infertility

 

Male infertility can be caused by a number of health issues and medical treatments which include :

  • Variocele : enlarged veins in the varicose                                                                            Causes of Male Infertility
  • Undescended testicles

  • Blockage in a man’s reproductive system

  • Infections

  • Sexually transmitted diseases

  • Use of certain medicines

  • Low sperm count

  • Sperm that are abnormally shaped or the ones which don't move correctly

  • An underlying medical problem

  • Tumors

  • Hormone imbalance

 

Male Infertility Symptoms

Most of the time infertility remains unnoticed until one cannot impregnate the female partner. Few signs & symptoms are

  • Reduced sexual desire

  • Difficulty in maintaining an ejection

  • Difficulty with ejaculation

  • Inability to smell

  • Recurrent respiratory infection

  • Pain, swelling or lump in testicular area

  • Abnormal breast growth

  • Very less hair on face and body can be due to hormonal disturbance .

 

Male Infertility Treatment in India

Being one of the most sought medical travel countries in the world, it is also popular because of its several treatments one of which is infertility. For the treatment of infertlity in men, what one needs is a well equipped hospital and an expert andrologist. India has both.

The hospitals in India are well armed with advanced laboratories, medicine units and operation theatres. The country also has on board several skilled andrologists who with thorough diagnosis provide a proper treatment for male infertility at a cost that is much lower than the other counries in the world.

     

Know more:

 

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is based on:

Detailed patient history

This includes signs, symptoms and any associated risk factors that might affect the fertility

Physical examination

It includes complete urogenital examination along with examination of other systems, and asking questions about any inherited conditions, chronic health problems, illnesses, injuries or surgeries that could affect fertility.

Investigations
  • Semen analysis: The semen sample may be used to analyze for any abnormality or morphology of the sperm.

  • Scrotal ultrasound: High frequency sound waves are used to produce images inside one’s body in order to find out varicocele or any other testicular problems.

  • Hormone testing: Hormones produced by the pituitary gland plays a key role in sexual development and sperm production.

  • Post ejaculation urine analysis : Sperm in the urine indicates that sperm is travelling backward into the bladder instead of in the penis.

  • Genetic tests

  • Testicular biopsy

  • Specialized sperm function tests

  • Trans rectal ultrasound

 

Male Infertility Treatment Procedure

Over than 50% of the cases of male infertility can be corrected. Treatment will depend on the cause:-

CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT
  • Improve lifestyle

  • Diet- coenzymeq10(ubiquinol) 200mg per orally daily

  • Supplementation of vitamin B12 capsules

MEDICAL CARE
  • Hormonal treatment & medications : It includes

  • GnRh therapy

  • HCG alone or in combination with HMG(human menopausal gonadotropin)

  • Estrogen modulators

  • Aromatase inhibitors

  • Tamoxifen

  • Antisperm antibodies : cyclic steroids for 3-6 months with immunosuppressant.

  • Retrograde ejaculation-Imipramine

  • Semen processing-In patients with poor semen quality

  • Surgical treatment :Varicolectomy

  • Prostatitis :TURP( trans urethral resection of prostate)

  • Treatment for sexual problems & infection

 

Male Infertility Treatment


 Prevention

Generally there is nothing which can be done to prevent male infertility which is caused by genetic problems or illness. But still , there are measures that men can taken to reduce the chance of infertility. These include , avoiding

  • Avoiding marijuana

  • Avoid smoking

  • Avoid heavy alcohol

  • Avoid excessive heat to testicles

  • Reduce stress

  • Avoiding radiation when possible

  • Avoiding sexually transmitted diseases

  • Avoid exposure to pesticide ,heavy metal, other toxin

 

Frequently asked questions
 

  • Is infertility just a woman problem?

  • No, it is not always a woman's problem . In fact it has been seen that 50% of the time the defect is in the male partner.

 

  • If a person has a low sperm count then is he infertile?

  • Yes, low sperm count is one of the leading causes of infertility.

 

  • If a person has varicocele then is he infertile?

  • Yes, varicocele if not treated can cause infertility.

 

  • What is azoospermia?

  • It is the absence of sperm in the semen.

 

Myths and Facts on Male Infertility

 
FACTS ON MALE INFERTILITY
  • Exposure to high temperatures in saunas and hot tubes can heat things up and if temperature of the testicles gets high, it can kill sperm and interfere with sperm production

  • Wearing loose fitting clothes, boxers are the best option

  • Cell phones can cause interference

  • Age is a factor

  • Stress plays a major role in infertility

  • Strict control on the weight

MYTHS ON MALE INFERTILITY
  • Infertility is a female problems

  • Weight does not affect male fertility

  • Heat from hot tubes and laptops do not kill sperm

  • Tight clothing is a factor in low sperm count

 

REFERENCES

Author Name
Dr Pooja Chaudhary

Published Date
: 10-Jul-2016

Dr. Pooja Chaudhary is a well known health blogger. She writes for some of the well known medical sites in India and US.

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