What is male infertility?
Male infertility means that a male cannot make a fertile female conceive even after having frequent ,unprotected intercourse for a year or longer. Male infertility is mostly caused due to low sperm production, abnormal sperm function or blockages that will prevent the delivery of sperm.
Overview of male reproductive system
Male reproductive system includes
Is a cylindrical shape male organ which is used in sexual intercourse. Inside this are spaces that are filled with blood .When a man is aroused the penis then becomes erect and flow of urine is blocked so that the semen can be ejaculated.
This is a loose skinned pouch located behind and below the penis, containing the testicles or testes .it is located outside the body because sperms require lower body temperature. This pouch has special muscles to contract and relax and adjust the temperatures.
Are the oval shaped organs, present in the scrotum .They are two in number, and produce testosterone ,the male sex hormone . The testes have coiled masses known as the seminiferous tubules ,which are responsible for sperm production.
Male Infertility Risk Factors
Risk factors for male infertility include:
Trauma to testes
Overheating of testes
Trauma to testes
Having a tumor or chronic illness
Prior vasectomy or abdominal or pelvic surgery
Any radiation for cancer
Being born with a fertility disorder or having a blood relative with a fertility disorder
Having certain medical conditions, including tumors and chronic illnesses, such as sickle cell disease
Taking certain medications or undergoing medical treatments, such as surgery or radiation used for treating cancer
Causes of Male Infertility
Male infertility can be caused by a number of health issues and medical treatments which include :
- Variocele : enlarged veins in the varicose
Blockage in a man’s reproductive system
Sexually transmitted diseases
Use of certain medicines
Low sperm count
Sperm that are abnormally shaped or the ones which don't move correctly
An underlying medical problem
Male Infertility Symptoms
Most of the time infertility remains unnoticed until one cannot impregnate the female partner. Few signs & symptoms are
Reduced sexual desire
Difficulty in maintaining an ejection
Difficulty with ejaculation
Inability to smell
Recurrent respiratory infection
Pain, swelling or lump in testicular area
Abnormal breast growth
Very less hair on face and body can be due to hormonal disturbance .
Male Infertility Treatment in India
Being one of the most sought medical travel countries in the world, it is also popular because of its several treatments one of which is infertility. For the treatment of infertlity in men, what one needs is a well equipped hospital and an expert andrologist. India has both.
The hospitals in India are well armed with advanced laboratories, medicine units and operation theatres. The country also has on board several skilled andrologists who with thorough diagnosis provide a proper treatment for male infertility at a cost that is much lower than the other counries in the world.
Diagnosis is based on:
Detailed patient history
This includes signs, symptoms and any associated risk factors that might affect the fertility
It includes complete urogenital examination along with examination of other systems, and asking questions about any inherited conditions, chronic health problems, illnesses, injuries or surgeries that could affect fertility.
Semen analysis: The semen sample may be used to analyze for any abnormality or morphology of the sperm.
Scrotal ultrasound: High frequency sound waves are used to produce images inside one’s body in order to find out varicocele or any other testicular problems.
Hormone testing: Hormones produced by the pituitary gland plays a key role in sexual development and sperm production.
Post ejaculation urine analysis : Sperm in the urine indicates that sperm is travelling backward into the bladder instead of in the penis.
Specialized sperm function tests
Trans rectal ultrasound
Male Infertility Treatment Procedure
Over than 50% of the cases of male infertility can be corrected. Treatment will depend on the cause:-
Diet- coenzymeq10(ubiquinol) 200mg per orally daily
Supplementation of vitamin B12 capsules
Hormonal treatment & medications : It includes
HCG alone or in combination with HMG(human menopausal gonadotropin)
Antisperm antibodies : cyclic steroids for 3-6 months with immunosuppressant.
Semen processing-In patients with poor semen quality
Surgical treatment :Varicolectomy
Prostatitis :TURP( trans urethral resection of prostate)
Treatment for sexual problems & infection
Generally there is nothing which can be done to prevent male infertility which is caused by genetic problems or illness. But still , there are measures that men can taken to reduce the chance of infertility. These include , avoiding
Avoid heavy alcohol
Avoid excessive heat to testicles
Avoiding radiation when possible
Avoiding sexually transmitted diseases
Avoid exposure to pesticide ,heavy metal, other toxin
Frequently asked questions
Is infertility just a woman problem?
No, it is not always a woman's problem . In fact it has been seen that 50% of the time the defect is in the male partner.
If a person has a low sperm count then is he infertile?
Yes, low sperm count is one of the leading causes of infertility.
If a person has varicocele then is he infertile?
Yes, varicocele if not treated can cause infertility.
What is azoospermia?
It is the absence of sperm in the semen.
Myths and Facts on Male Infertility
FACTS ON MALE INFERTILITY
Exposure to high temperatures in saunas and hot tubes can heat things up and if temperature of the testicles gets high, it can kill sperm and interfere with sperm production
Wearing loose fitting clothes, boxers are the best option
Cell phones can cause interference
Age is a factor
Stress plays a major role in infertility
Strict control on the weight
MYTHS ON MALE INFERTILITY
Infertility is a female problems
Weight does not affect male fertility
Heat from hot tubes and laptops do not kill sperm
Tight clothing is a factor in low sperm count
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