CBC means Complete Blood Count. This is a commonly done test to diagnose blood-related disorders like anaemia, infection or even blood cancer. It indicates any rise or fall in the blood cell numbers. CBC helps in determining the count of the following cells,
- Oxygen-carrying cells called as RBCs or Red Blood Cells
- Infection-fighting cells called WBCs or White Blood Cells
- Haemoglobin, a protein which carries proteins.
- Hematocrit, which is the ratio of RBCs to plasma
- Platelets, which helps in blood clotting
Know more about the CBC test.
Let’s have a look at the cells which majorly make the blood.
Red Blood Cells - These cells are responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body and take out carbon dioxide. RBCs are composed of haemoglobin, an oxygen-carrying protein. If the haemoglobin levels are reduced, it indicates anaemia.
White Blood Cells - The WBCs are responsible for fighting infection. Reduction in the WBCs leads to reduced immunity or the body’s ability to fight infection. However, an increased number in WBC count may indicate leukaemia which is a form of blood cancer. To read in detail about white blood cells and their relationship with cancer, click here.
Platelets - These cells help in the clotting of blood. A reduced platelet count can pose a threat to excessive bleeding which can be fatal. There are certain diseases that occur due to low platelet count such as thrombocytopenia.
What are the components of Complete Blood Count?
A CBC count includes:
WBC count - WBC count rises in case of a bacterial infection. This fact is used in detecting any infection in the body. In an increased number of WBC is either indicative of an infection or blood cancer.
WBC differential - The WBCs are of many types such as neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. The number of each type of WBCs helps in giving important information about the immune system. This component helps in the detection of an infection, allergy, toxic reaction to any medication.
RBC count - A fall in the number of RBCs indicate anaemia whereas an abnormal rise in the number of RBCs indicate a condition such as polycythemia in which the capillaries (thin blood vessels) can stick to each other and get blocked. This overall reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the body.
Hematocrit - This measures the density in which the red blood cells are packed in the plasma. The value is given in percentage.
Haemoglobin - Hemoglobin is a protein that makes up red blood cells. It is responsible for carrying oxygen in the blood and also gives red colour to the blood. Measuring the amount of haemoglobin helps in measuring the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
Other than these measures, Red blood cell Indices are also measured physical aspects of different cells in the blood. The RBC indices include:
Mean Corpuscular Volume - It is the average volume of a red blood cell. It is calculated by dividing the hematocrit by the concentration of RBC count. The normal range lies between 80-100 fL.
Mean Corpuscular haemoglobin - It is the average amount of haemoglobin present in each red blood cell. It is calculated by dividing the haemoglobin by the RBC count. The normal range lies between 27-31 pg/cell.
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin concentration - It is the average concentration of haemoglobin per unit volume of red blood cells. It is calculated by dividing the haemoglobin by the hematocrit. The normal range lies between 32-36 g/dL.
Platelet count - Platelets or thrombocytes are the smallest type of blood cells that take part in the clotting of blood. Whenever there is bleeding, these platelets get clumped together to form the blood clot. Lesser number of platelet count can lead to excessive loss of blood from the body. Whereas an increased number of platelet count can cause an obstruction in the blood flow.
Mean Platelet volume - MPV is the average amount of platelets. It is used to diagnose the platelet volume and platelet count.
Why is the CBC needed?
There are many ailments that need a CBC test to make a final diagnosis. Some of them are:
- To diagnose polycythemia. Polycythemia is a condition with raised levels of hematocrit.
- To diagnose anaemia
- To check the blood count after and before a surgical procedure.
- To check any infection
- To detect the exact cause of fatigue, fever or unintentional weight loss.
- The check-in the amount of blood loss due to any reason.
- To diagnose leukaemia.
- To analyse the body’s reaction towards a certain medication or radiotherapy.
- To detect an allergic reaction
- As a part of regular physical examination
You might be interested in reading more about Blood cancer treatment.
Red Blood cells or RBCs
High RBC levels indicate chronic smoking, exposure to carbon monoxide, lung disease, chronic kidney disease, cancer, heart diseases, alcohol consumption, liver disease, bone marrow disorder.
Also, the conditions that affect the body's water content also lead to a raised number of RBCs. For example, dehydration, diarrhoea, perspiration, or use of diuretics. The RBC volume may look more due to loss of fluid in the body. This is also known as spurious polycythemia.
Low RBC levels indicate anaemia which may occur due to several factors like thalassemia, sickle cell anaemia, inflammatory bowel disease, stomach ulcers, heavy menstrual flow and many more.
Another reason for reduced RBC levels includes pernicious anaemia which causes a lack of folic acid in the body.
White blood cells or WBCs
The number of WBCs can increase due to an infection, inflammation, physical or emotional stress, malnutrition, leukaemia, tuberculosis, kidney failure etc.
Moreover, the use of corticosteroids, non-functional or partially functioning adrenal glands, thyroid glands, removal of the spleen may also lead to a rise in the number of WBCs.
Whereas the WBC count can reduce may indicate chemotherapy, reaction to certain medication, Cushing's syndrome, alcohol consumption, AIDS, aplastic anaemia or any viral infection.
High levels of platelets can point out iron deficiency, abnormalities in the bone marrow, or even a large spleen. Additional Information - Bone Marrow Transplant.
On the other hand, reduced levels may insinuate immune thrombocytopenic purpura.
Platelet count can decrease in case of pregnancy.
You may like to read more about the Complete Blood Count Test.
CBC test count in Gurgaon
Gurgaon or Gurugram is also known as the millennium city of India. It is widely known for the IT industry. Medical tourism is also rapidly progressing in the city. It is a world-class city and has been excelling in terms of infrastructure and connectivity. The employees in most of the hospitals are highly qualified and well-versed in English. There are many people in the city which serve as language interpreters. The apartments for stay have all the facilities that one may require. Most of the hospitals are accredited with JCI and NABH. Many patients are referred to the city for several complex surgeries.
The approximate cost of CBC cost in Gurgaon is 300 INR to 600 INR. The most common laboratories for Complete Blood Count in Gurgaon are:
- Exo Lab
- SRL diagnostics
- Dr. Lal Path Labs
- Plasma Health Check diagnosis
- Care Pathology Labs
- Focus Diagnostic Center
- Vatika Medicare
CBC Cost in Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad is full of heritage sites along with having hospitals with modern pieces of equipment and infrastructure. There are several hospitals in public as well as private sectors. Not only this, but one can also relish the traditional ayurvedic therapies and yoga in the city. Almost all the specialities are covered by the hospitals in Ahmedabad such as neurosurgery, IVF, cardiac surgery, nephrology etc.
The approximate cost of the CBC test in Ahmedabad is around 120 INR to 300 INR. The most common laboratories in Ahmedabad are:
- Pathocare Laboratory
- Gold Coin Pathology Laboratory
- Spectrum Healthcare
- Cell care pathology lab Pvt Ltd.
- CIMS Laboratory
- Sanya Diagnostics
- Biocare Research Pvt Ltd.
CBC cost in Bangalore
The city of Bangalore has a cosmopolitan lifestyle showing rapid technological advancements. This attracts several medical tourists from across the world to the city. A multitude of exemplary services provided by health care professionals. The hospitals also have international accreditation. It has pleasant weather throughout the year. Overall, the city warmly welcomes you once you arrive for any medical treatment.
The average cost of a CBC test in Bangalore is 150 INR to 300 INR. Some common laboratories for CBC are listed below:
- Infosys Central Laboratory
- NM Medical
- Bangalore Baptist Hospital
- Bioline Laboratory
- Veritas Diagnostics
- Kaveri Diagnostic centre
- Nightingales Home Health Services
CBC test price in Lucknow
Lucknow is the 8th largest city in the country having a population of approximately 4,815,600 people. Apart from having a vast scope for medical tourism, it is also a historical and a multicultural city. Currently, the city is experiencing an economic distention. It has also become the fastest-growing cities among the non-metropolitan cities of the nation.
On average, the cost of the CBC test in Lucknow is around 200 INR to 450 INR. Some of the laboratories are:
- Mvt Diagnostic Center Pvt Ltd.
- Promila Diagnostic Center
- Kohli Pathology
- Medilab Diagnostic Center
- Idea Diagnostics
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