Types of Meningiomas
- Grade I (benign ) - most common type of meningiomas , slow growing tumors and less chances of recurrence
- Grade II (atypical ) - grows quickly with increased chances of recurrence
- Grade III ( anaplastic /malignant ) - these are most aggressive of the meningiomas , they grow and spread very rapidly .
Symptoms of Meningiomas
Meningiomas usually grows slowly and gently pushes and compress the surrounding brain tissue .
Symptoms depend on location of tumor within the brain , some common symptoms may be :
- Neurological deficits, weakness in arms, legs
- Personality changes
- Visual problems
- Loss of smell
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Diagnosis of Meningioma
Asymptomatic meningioma usually remain undiagnosed
Symptomatic meningiomas are diagnosed by imaging studies and clinical correlation with the compression symptoms they present
Clinically Neurological examination is performed ,
Imaging techniques confirms the location and extent of tumor
- MRI Scan (magnetic resonance imaging )- use of magnetic and sound waves to study the tumor
- CT Scan (computerized tomography )- a series of X rays at different angles to take images.
- Biopsy- may be performed by removing a part of tumor tissue for detailed diagnosis to study whether benign or malignant
- EEG (electro encephalogram )may be used to understand the electrical activity of the brain .
Treatment of Meningioma
Treatment option may vary for every patient and depends upon
- Location of tumor
- Size of tumor
- Grade of tumor
- Presenting symptoms
- Observation – In cases when the Meningioma is small and asymptomatic , usually only surveillance by imaging follow ups is required .
- Surgery –if the tumor is symptomatic and large then surgery is preferred, difficulty lies in the location and size of Meningioma.
- Craniotomy is performed wherein part of bone from skull is incised to expose the brain , the tumor is accessed and removed as much as possible without damaging the brain , the incision is then closed .
- Endoscopic craniotomy is a minimally invasive surgery involves insertion of scope with a camera into the brain through small incision into skull .
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- You will be monitored in the ICU before shifting to room and given medications to decrease brain swelling.
- You will be checked for brain functions by asking you to perform a variety of basic commands , your awareness level ,strength of extremities.
- The incision area and the head may pain with deep breathing or coughing for some time , you may use pain killer medication .
- Your recovery period will vary with the type of procedure performed, it may take several weeks .
Complications of MeningiomaSurgery
- Damage to nearby tissues and risk of bleeding , infection
- Cerebral edema commonly seen
- Some will develop seizures after surgery
- Some might develop neurological problems like muscle weakness , speech difficulty
- There is an risk of developing clots
- Radiation therapy –In this high intensity beams of radiation targeting the tumor are given , radiation may be used along with surgery or can also be the primary mode of treatment for tumors wherein surgery not possible in patients due to medical conditions .
Radiation is mandatorilyperformed with grade III meningiomas .
After radiation the tumor should stop growing , reduce in size or disappear.
Factors Affecting Cost of Meningioma Treatment
Following are the factors which will affect the treatment cost:
- The hospital patient is opting for.
- Room –Standard single room, deluxe room, super deluxe room for the number of nights specified (including nursing fee, meals, room rate, and room service).
- Operating room, ICU
- Fee for the team of doctors (Surgeons ,Anesthesist ,Physiotherapist ,Dietician )
- Standard test and diagnostic procedures
- Treatment options :
- Radiation therapy
- If there is any remission or re-occurrence
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