Types of Meningiomas
- Grade I (benign ) - most common type of meningiomas , slow growing tumors and less chances of recurrence
- Grade II (atypical ) - grows quickly with increased chances of recurrence
- Grade III ( anaplastic /malignant ) - these are most aggressive of the meningiomas , they grow and spread very rapidly .
Symptoms of Meningiomas
Meningiomas usually grows slowly and gently pushes and compress the surrounding brain tissue .
Symptoms depend on location of tumor within the brain , some common symptoms may be :
- Neurological deficits, weakness in arms, legs
- Personality changes
- Visual problems
- Loss of smell
Diagnosis of Meningioma
Asymptomatic meningioma usually remain undiagnosed
Symptomatic meningiomas are diagnosed by imaging studies and clinical correlation with the compression symptoms they present
Clinically Neurological examination is performed ,
Imaging techniques confirms the location and extent of tumor
- MRI Scan (magnetic resonance imaging )- use of magnetic and sound waves to study the tumor
- CT Scan (computerized tomography )- a series of X rays at different angles to take images.
- Biopsy- may be performed by removing a part of tumor tissue for detailed diagnosis to study whether benign or malignant
- EEG (electro encephalogram )may be used to understand the electrical activity of the brain .
Treatment of Meningioma
Treatment option may vary for every patient and depends upon
- Location of tumor
- Size of tumor
- Grade of tumor
- Presenting symptoms
- Observation – In cases when the Meningioma is small and asymptomatic , usually only surveillance by imaging follow ups is required .
- Surgery –if the tumor is symptomatic and large then surgery is preferred, difficulty lies in the location and size of Meningioma.
- Craniotomy is performed wherein part of bone from skull is incised to expose the brain , the tumor is accessed and removed as much as possible without damaging the brain , the incision is then closed .
- Endoscopic craniotomy is a minimally invasive surgery involves insertion of scope with a camera into the brain through small incision into skull .
- You will be monitored in the ICU before shifting to room and given medications to decrease brain swelling.
- You will be checked for brain functions by asking you to perform a variety of basic commands , your awareness level ,strength of extremities.
- The incision area and the head may pain with deep breathing or coughing for some time , you may use pain killer medication .
- Your recovery period will vary with the type of procedure performed, it may take several weeks .
Complications of MeningiomaSurgery
- Damage to nearby tissues and risk of bleeding , infection
- Cerebral edema commonly seen
- Some will develop seizures after surgery
- Some might develop neurological problems like muscle weakness , speech difficulty
- There is an risk of developing clots
- Radiation therapy –In this high intensity beams of radiation targeting the tumor are given , radiation may be used along with surgery or can also be the primary mode of treatment for tumors wherein surgery not possible in patients due to medical conditions .
Radiation is mandatorilyperformed with grade III meningiomas .
After radiation the tumor should stop growing , reduce in size or disappear.
Factors Affecting Cost of Meningioma Treatment
Following are the factors which will affect the treatment cost:
- The hospital patient is opting for.
- Room –Standard single room, deluxe room, super deluxe room for the number of nights specified (including nursing fee, meals, room rate, and room service).
- Operating room, ICU
- Fee for the team of doctors (Surgeons ,Anesthesist ,Physiotherapist ,Dietician )
- Standard test and diagnostic procedures
- Treatment options :
- Radiation therapy
- If there is any remission or re-occurrence