Magnetic Resonance Angiography(MRA) – is a non invasive diagnostic procedure that uses MRI technology to visualize the blood vessels
Computed Tomography Angiography(CTA) –also a non invasive diagnostic procedure , useful in cases where many follow up scans are required .
Catheter Angiography- its a minimally invasive procedure , involves introduction of catheter to the problem area to observe the flow of dye through blood vessels and thus identifying obstructions and narrowing .It is performed for both diagnostic as well as treatment purpose.
Coronary Angiography-is a minimally invasive procedure used to study blood vessels supplying the heart, mainly used in patient with heart disease, angina. Also useful in deciding and providing treatment to patient like Angioplasty .
Renal Angiography- used to examine the blood vessels supplying to kidney and to detect any signs of blockage or abnormalities .
Pulmonary Angiography- used to examine blood vessels of lungs in cases of pulmonary embolism
Cerebral Angiography- used to study the blood vessels in head and neck area .i these blood vessels are narrowed or obstructed it could lead to stroke. Can also be used after stroke to access damage or even to identify brain tumors.
Peripheral Angiography-study narrowing of vessels in patients thereby causing reduction in blood flow to legs and feet.
Retinal Angiography – to study the abnormalities of blood vessels supplying inside of the eye .
Procedure of Catheter Angiography
Before the Angiography Procedure
The consultant will review your medical history, also try to understand your past and present medical and surgical condition, whether you are taking any medications especially blood thinners ,check if you are allergic to any medications ,sensitivity to the contrast dye containing iodine.
During the Angiography procedure
This procedure is usually carried out by interventional radiologist, if angioplasty is also carried out simultaneously then vascular specialist or cardiologist .
You are made to lie flat on your back , blood pressure and heart rate is continuously monitored throughout the procedure.
Usually catheter is inserted through the femoral artery in the groin, local anaethesia is given and skin incision made , hollow needle is inserted into the artery
After which the catheter i.e a long thin flexible tube is inserted and manipulated through the blood stream to the correct artery while viewing continuously through the x- ray imaging device called fluoroscope
When the catheter location is perfect the contrast agent is injected to make the blood vessels visible and x-rays shots are taken from multiple angles to view the necessary arteries.
These X-ray taken while the dye is flowing through the arteries let the physician study the flow of blood through the blood vessels and help doctor find any blockages .
After the x-ray are done the catheter is removed and pressure applied to the puncture site for 10-15 minutes to reduce chance of bleeding from the artery
A bandage is tightly applied and you must stay with back in bed for 6-8 hrs
After the Angiography procedure
Patient is monitored in the recovery room, checked for bleeding or chest pain.
Advicable to keep the dressing clean and dry to prevent infection
Regularly Check for signs of infection – swelling , redness , discharges
Avoid lifting anything heavy for 3-5 days
Diagnosis for performing Angiography
Used to detect blood vessel abnormalities
Arterial stenosis – narrowing of blood vessel due to atherosclerosis
Arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
Locating and removing Blood Clots
Factors affecting cost of Angiography
The cost to the patient depends on a variety of factors like
The hospital, the patient chooses.
Room –Standard single room, deluxe room, super deluxe room for the number of nights specified (including nursing fee, meals, room rate and room service).
Fee for the team of doctors.
Standard test and diagnostic procedures.
Cost of the follow –up care required after the procedure