What is a prosthesis?
A prosthesis is referred to an artificial or synthetic device that is used to replace the missing part of a human body that is lost either due to a congenital condition, disease or trauma that may need to be amputated. A prosthetic device is supposed to replace the natural part in terms of function, mobility, and aesthetics.
Artificial limb prosthesis is artificial extensions replacing natural limbs that include arms and legs which are lost due to various reasons. It is basically a part of biomechanics that is associated with mechanical devices fusing with human muscles, nerves, and skeletal bones to enhance the sensory and motor function that is lost due to trauma or any other damage. Other than the arms and legs, the prosthesis includes heart valves, palatal obturator, artificial eyes, gastric bands, and dentures.
Types of artificial limb prostheses
Joint prostheses- These include all the ball and socket joints of hip and shoulder. The prostheses comprise of a round ball implant attached to a stem that is inserted into the thigh bone and upper arm bone.
Upper limb prostheses- These include replacements for arms. They are either body-powered that consist of the body and the harness, whose movement is controlled by the opposite arm. Another type of artificial arm is a myoelectric prosthesis, is controlled by electric signals received from the brain.
There are of two types that including trans-radial and trans-humeral prostheses. Trans-radial prostheses are made to replace the arm below the elbow and Trans-humeral prostheses are made to replace the upper arm.
Lower limb prostheses- These are made of various components like foot-ankle assemble, shank, suspension, and socket. Just like the upper limb prosthesis, these are also of 2 types.
Trans-tibial prostheses are made to replace the limb above the knee and Trans-femoral prostheses are made to replace the limb below the knee.
Cosmetic prostheses- The cosmetic prostheses are only made to enhance the aesthetic appearance of the body. They do not enhance much mobility or function of the body. These include artificial eyes, silicone hands, fingers, breasts, feet, and toes. They can be attached to the body by using form-fitting, adhesives, stretchable skin, suction, or skin sleeve.
Methods of fixation of the prosthetic device to the body
Direct bone attachment or osseointegration- In this method, a metal implant made of titanium is inserted into the core of the bone through the skin and then the prosthesis is attached to this metal implant. This enables better muscle control with the device.
Socket- This is a portion of the device that is fixed with the patient’s stump. It is very essential for the socket to be well-fitted because the socket forces are radiated from the device to the patient’s body.
Pylon - This is the fundamental frame made of metal rods that provide structural support to the device. They are mostly made of carbon-fiber composites.
Suspension - The suspension keeps the prosthetic limb attached to the body. There are different forms of suspension like a harness system, straps, belts or sleeves, used to attach the prosthetic device. Another most commonly used way of suspension mechanism is suction in which, the prosthetic limb is fitted onto the residual limb with an airtight seal that keeps it in place.
What makes an ideal prosthesis?
A good fit - In order to have good mobility, the socket needs to have a detailed fit.
Energy absorption - This is required to reduce the impact of the forces on the musculoskeletal system.
Ground Compliance- The prosthetic devices should be stable irrespective of the terrain type and angle.
Rotation - This feature must be imbibed to enhance the ease of changing direction.
Weight - The weight of the device should be just enough to provide comfort, balance, and speed.
Suspension - This feature decides how the socket will join and fit the limb
How to do the prosthetic care?
In order to extract the highest benefits from a prosthetic device, it is obligatory to take proper care. Following are some of the recommendations for the same.
Remove the prosthesis before sleeping.
Check for any blisters or irritation on the body part.
Put a bandage on the stump to decrease swelling when not wearing the prosthesis.
Practice exercises as recommended by the physiotherapist.
For leg prostheses, wear a well-fitted shoe with a constant heal height.
Regularly clean the prosthesis' socket with soap and water.
Wear clean dry socks with the prosthesis.
Why you must prefer India for the prosthetic surgery?
Some of the best plastic surgery hospitals in India are available, which are well-equipped with the latest devices that run with contemporary technology. The hospitals have hired some of the topmost plastic surgeons of India who hold vast experience in the field. The doctors have been trained to evaluate the condition in detail and find the best plan for the patient. Moreover, the hospitals provide all the necessary facilities at a reasonable cost.
To know more about cost details of prosthetic surgery in India, Click here.