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Hypertension Treatment in India

WHAT IS HYPERTENSION (HIGH BLOOD PRESSSURE)?

 

Blood pressure: It is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of blood vessels, and the magnitude of the force will depend on the cardiac output and the resistance of the blood vessels.

High blood pressure : is a common condition, in this the long-term force of the blood against the artery walls is high which can sooner or later lead to health problems, such as cardiac disease.

Hypertension is having a blood pressure higher than 140 over 90 mmHg!


Hypertension


 

OVERVIEW OF VASCULAR SYSTEM

vascular system is also referred as the circulatory system, consists of the vessels that carry blood and lymph throughout the body.

  • Arteries and veins carry blood throughout the body, carrying oxygen and nutrients to the body tissues and also taking away the tissue waste.

  • Lymph vessels carry lymphatic fluid (a clear, colorless fluid containing water and blood cells). Lymphatic system helps in protecting and maintaining the fluid environment of the body by filtering and draining lymph away from each area of the body.

 

Overview Of Cardio Vascular System
 

 

TYPES OF HYPERTENSION


There are two types of hypertension:-

 

PRIMARY HYPERTENSION

People suffering from essential hypertension usually have no symptoms , but at times patients may experience symptoms .

  • Frequent headaches

  • Dizziness

  • Tiredness

  • Nose bleed

 

Causes: It has no identifiable causes few causes are :

  • Obesity

  • Smoking

  • Alcohol

  • Diet

  • Stress

  • Age

  • Unhealthy diet


SECONDARY HYPERTENSION

This type of hypertension tends to occur suddenly, & various conditions & medications can cause this .

 

Causes :

  • Obstructive sleep apnea

  • Kidney damage or impaired function

  • Adrenal gland tumors

  • Thyroid dysfunction

  • Certain defects in blood vessels (congenital)

  • Certain medications, such as birth control pills, cold remedies, decongestants, over-the-counter pain relievers and some prescription drugs

  • Illegal drugs, such as cocaine and amphetamines

  • Alcohol abuse or chronic alcohol use

  • Pregnancy related condition s

 

ADDITIONAL HYPERTENSION

The other types include :

  • Malignant Hypertension.

  • Isolated Systolic Hypertension

  • White Coat Hypertension

  • Resistant Hypertension

 

Essential Hypertension Causes
 


HYPERTENSION SYMPTOMS


High blood pressure is usually associated with no symptoms. It is usually diagnosed during routine check -up .

If symptoms occur , then these include :

  • Severe headache

  • Fatigue or confusion

  • Difficulty in breathing

  • Vision problem

  • Chest pain

  • Irregular heartbeat

  • Blood in the urine


 

EMERGENCY HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SYMPTOMS (HYPERTENSIVE CRISIS)

  • Severe headache

  • Severe anxiety

  • Shortness of breath

  • Nose bleed


 

UNTREATED HYPERTENSION SYMPTOMS

  • Heart diseases

  • Kidney failure

  • Eye problems

 

HYPERTENSION DIAGNOSIS

Hypertension Diagnosis
 

High blood pressure is referred as a "silent disease" as mostly people don't know that they are suffering from it. Therefore, it's important to regularly monitor the blood pressure, particularly if it has ever been high or above the "normal" range, or if a patient has a family history of hypertension. Diagnosis is mostly based on


High Blood Pressure tests
 

  • Detailed patient history : This includes signs, symptoms and any associated risk factors

  • Physical examination :It includes complete cardiovascular examination along with examination of other systems.

  • Measurement of blood pressure: Blood pressure is measured by an instrument named sphygmomanometer. A cuff is been tied on left arm (generally) and the blood pressure is measured. One high reading does not indicate you have high blood pressure at least 3 readings is been taken at an interval of 2 minutes both in sitting and lying position.

  • Investigations

  • Urine and blood tests

  • Blood urea and keratinize

  • Serum electrolytes

  • Fasting and post-prandial blood glucose

  • Serum cholesterol and triglycerides

  • Serum calcium and uric acid

  • Electrocardiogram

  • Exercise stress test

  • Echo cardiogram

 

MEASURING BLOOD PRESSURE

Blood pressure is measured with a device known as a sphygmomanometer, which consists of a stethoscope, arm cuff, dial, pump, and valve. Blood pressure is recorded as two numbers: the systolic and diastolic pressures.

Measuring Blood Pressure
 

Systolic blood pressure: It is when the pressure is maximum during a heartbeat.

Diastolic blood pressure: is the lowest pressure between heartbeat.


 

CATEGORY

SYSTOLIC(mmHg)

DIASTOLIC(mmHg)

Hypotension

Less than 90

Less than 60

Normal

90-119

60-79

Prehypertension

120-139

80-89

Stage 1 Hypertension

140-159

90-99

Stage 2 Hypertension

160-179

100-109

Hypertensive crisis

Greater than 180

Greater than 110


 

HYPERTENSION TREATMENT


Treatment of hypertension include :

Lifestyle modification :

  • Exercise regularly

  • Dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet plan to be followed

  • Quit smoking

  • Salt restriction

  • limited intake of alcohol

  • Weight reduction

  • Increasing the intake of fruits & vegetable

  • Stress reduction


DASH DIET / HYPERTENSION DIET


This diet has specially been formulated to help people lower blood pressure. It is a flexible and balanced diet .

Dash Diet

 

Drug Therapy : Number of drugs are available to lower blood pressure. The choise of drug will depend on person to person .These include

  • Diuretics (including thiazides, chlorthalidone and indapamide)

  • Beta-blockers (and alpha-blockers)

  • Calcium-channel blockers

  • Central agonists

  • Peripheral adrenergic inhibitors

  • Vasodilators

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

  • Angiotensin receptor blockers.

 

 

COST OF HYPERTENSION TREATMENT IN INDIA

The cost of the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in India is between USD 200 - 400.

 

COMPLICATIONS OF HYPERTENSION


Complications of hypertension include:

  • Heart attack or stroke

  • Aneurysm

  • Heart failure

  • Weakened and narrowed blood vessels in the kidney.

  • Thickened blood vessels in the eyes

  • Metabolic syndrome

  • Trouble with memory or understanding

  • Loss of consciousness

  • Deterioration in renal failure


 

HOW TO CONTROL HYPERTENSION?


How To Control Hypertension



FAQ's

> What is the normal blood pressure?

The normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg.

 

> What do you mean by systolic and diastolic blood pressure?

The higher number represents pressure in the arteries when the heart beats known as systolic blood pressure. While the lower number represents pressure in the arteries when the heart is relaxed.

 

> How do I know if I have a high blood pressure?

The fact is that one can't judge high blood pressure ,it is only through routine check up when one gets blood pressure measured.

 

> Will hypertension go away without treatment?

Rarely hypertension goes away without treatment one has to take medications on daily basis.

 

> Do I have to take medications for hypertension lifelong?

High blood pressure is often a lifelong condition ,through diet and lifestyle modification one may manage it but cannot cure it completely. So one has to take medications throughout the life.

 


Hypertension Facts

 

REFERENCES

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/150109.php?page=3

http://www.everydayhealth.com/hypertension/preventing.aspx

http://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/guide/whypertension-diagnosing-high-blood-pressure?page=2

Author Name
Dr Pooja Chaudhary

Published Date
: 20-Jul-2016

Dr. Pooja Chaudhary is a well known health blogger. She writes for some of the well known medical sites in India and US.

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