WHAT IS HYPERTENSION (HIGH BLOOD PRESSSURE)?
Blood pressure: It is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of blood vessels, and the magnitude of the force will depend on the cardiac output and the resistance of the blood vessels.
High blood pressure : is a common condition, in this the long-term force of the blood against the artery walls is high which can sooner or later lead to health problems, such as cardiac disease.
Hypertension is having a blood pressure higher than 140 over 90 mmHg!
OVERVIEW OF VASCULAR SYSTEM
vascular system is also referred as the circulatory system, consists of the vessels that carry blood and lymph throughout the body.
Arteries and veins carry blood throughout the body, carrying oxygen and nutrients to the body tissues and also taking away the tissue waste.
Lymph vessels carry lymphatic fluid (a clear, colorless fluid containing water and blood cells). Lymphatic system helps in protecting and maintaining the fluid environment of the body by filtering and draining lymph away from each area of the body.
TYPES OF HYPERTENSION
There are two types of hypertension:-
People suffering from essential hypertension usually have no symptoms , but at times patients may experience symptoms .
Causes: It has no identifiable causes few causes are :
This type of hypertension tends to occur suddenly, & various conditions & medications can cause this .
Obstructive sleep apnea
Kidney damage or impaired function
Adrenal gland tumors
Certain defects in blood vessels (congenital)
Certain medications, such as birth control pills, cold remedies, decongestants, over-the-counter pain relievers and some prescription drugs
Illegal drugs, such as cocaine and amphetamines
Alcohol abuse or chronic alcohol use
Pregnancy related condition s
The other types include :
Isolated Systolic Hypertension
White Coat Hypertension
High blood pressure is usually associated with no symptoms. It is usually diagnosed during routine check -up .
If symptoms occur , then these include :
Fatigue or confusion
Difficulty in breathing
Blood in the urine
EMERGENCY HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SYMPTOMS (HYPERTENSIVE CRISIS)
Shortness of breath
UNTREATED HYPERTENSION SYMPTOMS
High blood pressure is referred as a "silent disease" as mostly people don't know that they are suffering from it. Therefore, it's important to regularly monitor the blood pressure, particularly if it has ever been high or above the "normal" range, or if a patient has a family history of hypertension. Diagnosis is mostly based on
Detailed patient history : This includes signs, symptoms and any associated risk factors
Physical examination :It includes complete cardiovascular examination along with examination of other systems.
Measurement of blood pressure: Blood pressure is measured by an instrument named sphygmomanometer. A cuff is been tied on left arm (generally) and the blood pressure is measured. One high reading does not indicate you have high blood pressure at least 3 readings is been taken at an interval of 2 minutes both in sitting and lying position.
Urine and blood tests
Blood urea and keratinize
Fasting and post-prandial blood glucose
Serum cholesterol and triglycerides
Serum calcium and uric acid
Exercise stress test
MEASURING BLOOD PRESSURE
Blood pressure is measured with a device known as a sphygmomanometer, which consists of a stethoscope, arm cuff, dial, pump, and valve. Blood pressure is recorded as two numbers: the systolic and diastolic pressures.
Systolic blood pressure: It is when the pressure is maximum during a heartbeat.
Diastolic blood pressure: is the lowest pressure between heartbeat.
Less than 90
Less than 60
Stage 1 Hypertension
Stage 2 Hypertension
Greater than 180
Greater than 110
Treatment of hypertension include :
Lifestyle modification :
Dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet plan to be followed
limited intake of alcohol
Increasing the intake of fruits & vegetable
DASH DIET / HYPERTENSION DIET
This diet has specially been formulated to help people lower blood pressure. It is a flexible and balanced diet .
Drug Therapy : Number of drugs are available to lower blood pressure. The choise of drug will depend on person to person .These include
Diuretics (including thiazides, chlorthalidone and indapamide)
Beta-blockers (and alpha-blockers)
Peripheral adrenergic inhibitors
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
Angiotensin receptor blockers.
COST OF HYPERTENSION TREATMENT IN INDIA
The cost of the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in India is between USD 200 - 400.
COMPLICATIONS OF HYPERTENSION
Complications of hypertension include:
Heart attack or stroke
Weakened and narrowed blood vessels in the kidney.
Thickened blood vessels in the eyes
Trouble with memory or understanding
Loss of consciousness
Deterioration in renal failure
HOW TO CONTROL HYPERTENSION?
> What is the normal blood pressure?
The normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg.
> What do you mean by systolic and diastolic blood pressure?
The higher number represents pressure in the arteries when the heart beats known as systolic blood pressure. While the lower number represents pressure in the arteries when the heart is relaxed.
> How do I know if I have a high blood pressure?
The fact is that one can't judge high blood pressure ,it is only through routine check up when one gets blood pressure measured.
> Will hypertension go away without treatment?
Rarely hypertension goes away without treatment one has to take medications on daily basis.
> Do I have to take medications for hypertension lifelong?
High blood pressure is often a lifelong condition ,through diet and lifestyle modification one may manage it but cannot cure it completely. So one has to take medications throughout the life.