Classification of Acute Myeloid Leukemia
The following classification is made according to the type of blood cells AML affects:
Occurs in immature white blood cells
Undifferentiated acute myeloblastic leukemia
Acute myeloblastic leukemia with minimal maturation
Acute myeloblastic leukemia with maturation
Acute promyelocytic leukemia
Acute myelomonocytic leukemia
Acute myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia
- Acute monocytic leukemia
Occurs in immature red blood cells
Immature cells which later form platelets
Symptoms of Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Anemia causing exhaustion, dizziness, paleness, shortness of breath
Frequent infections that heal slowly because of the lack of healthy white blood cells.
Bleeding or bruising due to low platelet count.
Swollen lymph nodes
Risks of Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Exposure to benzene for a long period of time
Exposure to high ionized radiation
Certain blood disorders, like, polycythemia vera, idiopathic myelofibrosis and others.
Syndromes that cause genetic mutations at birth, for instance, Down Syndrome.
Medical history of close family members such as parents or siblings.
Diagnosis of Acute Myeloid Leukemia
- Blood Test to check the blood count of the patient
- Bone Marrow Test to determine the patient’s medical condition to be leukemia
- Lumbar Puncture or spinal tap to check whether there is a spread of AML in the cerebrospinal fluid.
- CT Scan to check for swollen lymph nodes
- MRI to look for any affected areas in and around the brain and spinal cord.
- Ultrasound to see whether any internal organs of the body have been affected or not.
Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Acute Myeloid Leukemia is treated in two phases. The first phase, known as the remission therapy, aims to kill the AML cells in the patient’s body. The consolidation therapy is the second phase kills the remaining leukemia cells so as to avoid the risk of recurrence.
- Chemotherapy:Chemotherapy is provided as the first phase of AML treatment. The patient generally stays in the hospital during this time. Chemotherapy drugs are provided to the patienteither in the form of pills or are injected directly into his/her veins.
- Stem Cell Transplant: After destroying the AML cells, the patient has to undergo a stem cell transplant as part of the second phase of the treatment. In this treatment, stem cells are harvested either from a donor or the patient himself and are frozen till required.The stem cells are then injected to the patient’s body that reach the bone marrow and begin producing healthy blood cells.
Factors Affecting the Cost of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment
The following factors affect the treatment cost of Acute Myeloid Leukemia:
The hospital, the patient chooses.
Room –Standard single room, deluxe room, super deluxe room for the number of nights specified (including nursing fee, meals, room rate, and room service).
The type of acute myeloid leukemia suggested by the hematologist.
Fee for the team of doctors.
Standard test and diagnostic procedures.
Cost of the follow –up care required after the procedure.