Diabetes is a common chronic condition, having no definite cure, treatment is primarily focused on controlling the blood sugar levels by medicines, insulin injections and maintaining a proper diet. Diabetes can affect every organ of the body, so essential to keep sugar levels under control. With the use of stem cell therapy, there might be a cure for diabetes. An embryonic stem cell can develop a beta cell and these cells of the pancreas can be then transferred to diabetic patients.
Types of Diabetes
There are two major types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2.
- Type 1 Diabetes: Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), or juvenile onset diabetes mellitus- here the beta cells of the pancreas, which are responsible for insulin production, are attacked by the immune system, and thus incapable of making insulin. People with type 1 diabetes must rely on insulin medication for survival.
- Type 2 Diabetes: Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), or adult onset diabetes mellitus (AODM). In type 2 diabetes, patients can produce insulin, but its inadequate for their body's needs, as there is a lack of sensitivity to insulin by the cells of the body.
Symptoms of Diabetes
- Weight loss
- Frequent Urination
- Blurry vision
- Wounds that won’t heal
- Numbness or tingling hands and feet
- Sexual problems
Tests and Diagnosis for Diabetes
- HBA1C - Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates that you have diabetes
- Random blood sugar test
- Fasting blood sugar test
- Oral glucose tolerance test
- Urine examination
Types of Stem cell Transplant
- Autologous Transplant: When the stem cells come from your own bloodor bone marrow, it is called an autologous transplant
- Allogenic transplant: When the stem cells come from another person, itis called an allogeneic transplant. The donors immune system markers areclosely matched to the recipient.
- Before you have stem cell treatment, your physician will discuss the treatment modalities in detail.
- Evaluation-You will first be evaluated to find out if you are eligible for stem cell treatment.
- Many different medical tests will be performed, these might include:
- A complete health history and physical exam
- Heart tests
- Lung function tests, such as a chest x-ray and PFTs
- Blood tests, such as a complete blood count, blood chemistry,
- Hepatitis B, CMV, and HIV
- Advised to stop all non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) one week prior the procedure
- Asked to stop any medication or supplements that thin the blood like aspirin
- Stem cells are normally extracted from the patients fat tissue or bone marrow.
- The sample is centrifuged
- The stem cells are then implantedeither Intra arterial, intravenous, Lumbar puncture, Intramuscular or Intradermal
- Implantation is a painless process and no anesthesia required.
- Patient generally monitored for about a day in the hospital.
- More stable blood sugar levels and a gradual decrease of HbA1C
- Normalized blood counts
- 50% decrease in insulin shot requirements
- Reduced severity and frequency of diabetes-related complications
- Improved sexual capacity
- Boosted immunity
- Better overall life quality.
Stem cell injections come from a patient’s own body so the rejection risk is extremely low. Side effects from the infusion are rare and usually mild, they may be :
Factors Affecting Cost of stem cell treatment
The cost to the patient depends on a variety of factors like:
- The hospital, the patient chooses
- Fee for the team of doctors
- Cost of medications
- Cost for stem cell collection process, cost of the procedure
- Number of stem cell infusions
- Standard tests and diagnosis
- Cost of the follow–up after the procedure