Types of Brain Haemorrhage
The label of brain haemorrhage is given depending on the position where it is found. Bleeding occurring in the skull would be called as intracranial haemorrhage. Bleeding can also be seen between the brain tissue, and brain’s covering, which will be referred as subarachnoid haemorrhage. If there are blood clots seen somewhere between the brain and the skull, it will be termed as epidural or subdural hematoma, which will depend on whether it is present above or below the dura (tough covering) of the brain. Trauma is the most common cause of epidural and subdural hematomas.
It is also quite important to see when the bleeding starts taking place. Sometimes headache may accompany or not as the brain does not have the complete understanding of what is going on inside. The meninges or brain coverings are quite sensitive when can cause the severe form of headaches when there is an aneurysm rupture. This is also considered to be a common symptom.
After recognizing that there is a brain haemorrhage, several tests for diagnosis will be performed. Medications are also used for the treatment of the same. In the case, the brain haemorrhage is way too severe, surgery will also be required. It is crucial to release some amount of pressure from the brain.
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Types and Procedures of Brain Haemorrhage Surgery
Brain haemorrhage is a serious condition which will require immediate medical attention with treatment. A neurosurgeon with his/her gathered experience and training will diagnose the condition along with make necessary evaluations to determine the most effective course of treatment. It will depend on the overall health condition and age of the patient along with the degree of damage caused to the brain and its location. Some of the procedures of surgery that might be used for brain haemorrhage are mentioned below:
This treatment method is used for relieving the pressure that the brain possesses due to any of the causing factors. A skilled neurosurgeon takes charge of the situation by removing the blood that has pooled inside the brain along with repairing the damage that has been caused to the blood vessels. Draining the hematoma will help in relieving the pressure build up as the pooled blood’s size is significantly reduced. The doctor can use any of the four available surgical methods:
- Craniotomy and open surgery: In this surgical method, the doctor will remove a part of the patient’s skull and conduct an open surgery for draining the hematoma along with repairing the ruptured blood vessel. This is quite a major procedure which is conducted when the hematoma is quite large, or when it is pressing against the brain stem to disrupt some of the crucial brain functions.
- Simple aspiration: In this procedure, the surgeon will drill a hole in the patient’s skull to drain the hematoma with the help of a needle. It is comparatively non-invasive in nature, but can be difficult when trying to locate the exact position of the bleeding. Because of this, the surgeon may not be able to drain the hematoma entirely.
- Endoscopic evaluation: This method is close of simple aspiration as it will involve drilling a hole as well. However, an endoscope (i.e. an instrument with a tiny camera) is used for locating the hematoma instead of the traditional surgical instruments.
- Stereotactic aspiration: This method makes use of computed tomography (CT) for locating the hematoma along with a specialized suction tool for draining it. The patient will be placed in a stereotactic head frame that does not allow him/her to move. It provides a great deal of accuracy and precision which would not be possible in other methods.
For dealing with aneurysm, the surgical methods used are clipping, coiling, and a combination of endovascular and surgical treatment in case of complex aneurysms.
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Factors affecting the Cost of Brian Haemorrhage Surgery
The cost will depend on the type of method used for surgery along with the location and severity of brain haemorrhage. The cost can go up to $7,000 or even more depending on the place. Some of the factors that will determine the cost of brain haemorrhage surgery are:
- The hospital where the treatment will be performed.
- The type of room along with its facilities selected by the patient.
- Tests and examinations that will be conducted for the diagnosis.
- The fee of the team of doctors employed.
- Follow-up care along with other cost in the end of the surgery.
- The type of procedure used for treating the condition. An open surgery will cost more as compared to the non-invasive ones.
- The equipment used for the surgery such as the drilling tool in simple aspiration, an endoscope in endoscopic evaluation, or a suction tool in stereotactic aspiration will have varying costs.
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Diagnosis for Brian Haemorrhage Surgery
Some of the factors that can cause brain haemorrhage are:
- Brain tumour
- Drug abuse
- High blood pressure
- Head injuries or trauma
- Cerebral aneurysm
- Liver disease
- Bleeding disorders
- Blood vessel abnormalities
When there is a brain haemorrhage, the patient will be likely to experience:
- Lethargy, unconsciousness, or stupor
- Difficulty in understanding or confusion
- Lack of coordination or balance
- Problems with vision
- Difficulty swallowing
- Severe headaches occurring suddenly
The location of the brain haemorrhage will determine which category it fits into:
- Epidural haemorrhage
- Subdural haemorrhage
- Subarachnoid haemorrhage
- Intracerebral haemorrhage
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It can be quite difficult to diagnose brain haemorrhage as many patients do not exhibit the physical symptoms. Hence, several tests may need to be conducted to figure out the position of the haemorrhage in the brain. Some of these tests are:
- Lumbar puncture (i.e. spinal tap)
- X-rays after injecting dye (cerebral angiography)
- MRI (i.e. magnetic resonance imaging)
- CT (i.e. computed topography)
Several treatment options are available, among which brain haemorrhage surgery is commonly used when the haemorrhage is severe. When there is a cerebral aneurysm, there is a chance of haemorrhage. In that case, a surgical procedure is used to remove that section of the skull. This is also known as a craniotomy.
Some of the other treatment options available are anti-epileptic drugs, anti-anxiety drugs, and other drugs to control the severity of the headaches.