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Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer is uncontrolled growth of cells in the cervix (which is the lower part of the uterus connecting to the vagina ) It is a common cancer in women over the age of 30 yrs, its prognosis is good  if diagnosed and treated in early stages .

In the following sections you will know about :

 

1.    Types and risk factors of cervical cancer 

2.    Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer 

3.    Cost of cervical cancer treatment 

4.    Diagnosis and tests for cervical cancer

5.    Treatment of cervical cancer 

6.    Leading doctors and hospitals for cervical cancer treatment

7.    Frequently asked questions about cervical  cancer 
 

Treatments and Cost Related to Cervical Cancer

Medical Travel Cost

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Miscellaneous

Cervical Cancer Cost In India For A Patient From United States Change Selection

No. of Travellers 2
Days in Hospital 6
Days Outside Hospital 14
Total days in India 20
Treatment Cost USD 5,000

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Types of cervical cancer

There are two main types of localized cervical cancer differentiated on appearance of cells

  • Squamous cell carcinoma -accounting for 90 percent of the cases it begins in the cells that line the bottom of cervix

  • Adenocarcinoma  - seen in the cells that line the upper part of cervix , these make up for around 10-20 percent of cancer cervix

  • Metastatic cervical cancer – when the cancer cells spread to other part of body

 

Risk factors for cervical cancer

  • HPV virus (HPV 16 and HPV 18) are known to be responsible for 70% of all cases of cervical cancer.

  • Engaging in early sex and having multiple partners

  • Diet and obesity

  • Tobacco and smoking

  • Immune system suppression

  • Long term use of oral contraceptive

  • Family history

 

Signs and Symptoms of Cervical Cancer

There is no early symptom so cervical cancer in most of cases goes undiagnosed  till advanced stage .It is therefore advisable for females to get a pap smear test done at regular interval.

Symptoms when present may be :

  • Unusual vaginal  bleeding in between or following periods

  • Bleeding after intercourse, douching, or a pelvic examination

  • Bleeding after menopause

  • Pain during intercourse

  • Increased foul smelling vaginal discharge

  • Low back ache or abdominal pain

 

Diagnosis of cervical cancer

  • Clinical  history and symptoms of the patient though in many cases cervical cancer does not cause any symptoms  until  an advanced stage.

  • Physical examination and tests

  • Pap smear test-It is done by  gently scraping the cells from the cervix and uterus and studying them under microscope.

  • HPV Typing- It is very similar to Pap test and is done by examining the cells taken from the cervix.

  • Colposcopy – microscope used to examine external surface  the cervix

  • Biopsy – Biopsy is removal of small part and microscopic examination to study tissue changes for malignancy

  • To understand the staging  of cancer

  • Computed Tomography scan

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging

  • Cystoscopy or cystourethroscopy -

  • Laparoscopy

 

Stages of Cervical Cancer

TNM (Tumor, Nodes, and Metastasis  ) staging system which involves

  • Location of the tumor

  • Cell type (such as, adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma)

  • Tumor size

  • Spread to nearby lymph nodes

  • Spread to different parts of the body

  • In situ: Presence of abnormal cells which have not spread.

  • Localized: Cancer is limited to its origin place.

  • Regional: Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes, tissues, or organs.

  • Distant: Cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Stages of cervical cancer include Stage I , stage II, stage III and stage IV depending on its grading .

 

 TREATMENT OF CERVICAL CANCER

The goal of cancer treatment is to destroy the cancer cells with  minimal  damage to normal cells nearby.

 Cancer treatments it depends on

  • Type of cancer,
  • Stage of cancer , if metastasis
  • General health condition and age of patient

 

Types of treatment procedure

 

1. Surgery

 Cases of early stage cancer – If cervical cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, that is when it is confined to only cervix , it's usually possible to treat it using surgery, minimally invasive surgery is also an option .

Radical trachelectomy –surgery to remove most of the cervix , but the uterus is left intact , used mainly for young patients who want to preserve fertility .

 

Laser surgery - A narrow beam of laser light is used to destroy cancerous and precancerous cell.

 

LEEP (Loop electrosurgical excision process) - A loop with current flowing is used to cut out the cancerous part of the cervix.

 

Radical Hysterectomy - In some cases uterus may be removed. The surgical procedure used to remove the uterus is called hysterectomy.

After effects of surgery -As surgical procedure is linked to fertility , its important to discuss with the surgeon .

Advanced  stage cancer : When the cancer has spread beyond the cervix area. Treatment for advance stage cancer using

 

2. Chemotherapy- uses anti cancer drugs to destroy cancer cells.

 

3. Radiotherapy- uses high energy x-rays to destroy the  cancer cells . It is an alternative to surgery for some women with early stage cervical cancer whereas in some cases, it's used alongside surgery. Radiotherapy can be given externally or internally

 

In some radiation is usually combined with chemotherapy called concurrent chemo radiation .

 

Factors Affecting Cost Of Cervical Cancer Surgery

The cost to the patient depends on a variety of factors like

  • The hospital, the patient chooses.

  • Room –Standard single room, deluxe room, super deluxe room for the number of nights specified (including nursing fee, meals, room rate, and room service).

  • Fee for the team of doctors.

  • Medicines.

  • Standard tests and diagnostic procedures.

  • Type of surgery performed

  •  cost of Radiation /Chemotherapy

  • Cost of the follow –up care required after the procedure

 

Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Cervical Cancer

 

1. What is cancer ?

Cancer is uncontrolled growth of cells.

 

2. How can cervical cancer be prevented ?

Cervical cancer can be prevented by regular screening of women by Pap Smear testing and administering  HPV vaccine  to girls.

 

3. What is metastatic cervical cancer ?

Metastatic cervical cancer means  when the cancer cells spread to other part of body.

 

4. What are the 5 year survival  rate of cervical cancer ?

The chances of living for at least five years after being diagnosed with cervical cancer are:

  • stage 1  – 80-99%
  • stage 2  – 60-90%
  • stage 3  – 30-50%
  • stage 4  – 20%

 

5. Which age group gets mostly affected by cervical cancer ?

 The condition mainly affects sexually active women aged between 30 and 45. Cervical cancer is very rare in women under 25.

 

6. What are the warning sign to seek medical  opinion  ?

It is important to seek medical help when there is

Unusual abnormal  bleeding that is

  • bleeding after sex (postcoital bleeding)
  • bleeding in between  periods
  • bleeding after menopause

 

7. What is staging of cancer and how does it help ?

Staging is the process of finding the location & extent of the cancer  as to where it has spread & whether it is affecting the other parts of the body. Having a knowledge of staging helps

  • Understand the severity of the cancer and the survival chances.
  • Plan the best treatment option accordingly.

 

8. What is Pap Smear testing ?

In pap smear testing a sample of cells is taken from cervix with a swab /brush and checked under microscope for abnormalities of cells , so that changes can be monitored and treated as early as possible.

 

9. What does prognosis of cervical cancer depend on ?

The prognosis of cervical cancer depends upon the stage it is diagnosed and type of cervical cancer as well as general health of patient .

When detected at an early stage the 5 year survival rate is between 80-99 percent .

 

10. What is cervical dysplasia and  does it indicate cancer cervix ?

Cervical dysplasia means abnormal cells on the surface of cervix ,No,  Cervical dysplasia is not cervical cancer .Usually the  dysplasia goes on its own, occasionally it could develop into cancer , it is recommended to monitor the changes by regular pap smear testing and HPV testing .

 

11. How is HPV related to cervical cancer ?

When exposed to HPV usuallywe are protected by ourimmune system , however in some the HPV virus survives for years and ultimately leads to conversion of normal cells into cancerous ones . HPV virus (HPV 16 and HPV 18) are known to be responsible for 70% of all cases of cervical cancer.

 

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